The Nobel Prize tradition began through the works of inventor Alfred Nobel in Stockholm, Sweden. The ceremony has taken place annually since 1895, awarding recipients throughout the world.
The categories include Physics, Chemistry, Physiology or Medicine, Literature, Peace, and the Sveriges Riksbank Prize of Economic Sciences.
The “prize” consists of a gold medal, a certificate, and a sum of money which is “decided by the Nobel Foundation,” according to NobelPrize.org.
The following inserts include the winners, also known as laureates, of the 2016 awards, which were announced early October. The official ceremony will commence in Stockholm on Dec. 10.
The Nobel Prize in Physics
The 2016 Nobel Prize in Physics was awarded to David J. Thouless, F. Duncan M. Haldane, and J. Michael Kosterlitz, college professors from the United Kingdom.
According to the Nobel Prize website, the trio earned their prize “for theoretical discoveries of topological phase transitions and topological phases of matter.”
Haldane commented on the honor, saying he was “very surprised and very gratified,” as put by PhysicsWorld.com.
The Nobel Prize in Chemistry
The Chemistry laureates for this year were Jean-Pierre Sauvage (France), Sir J. Fraser Stoddart (United Kingdom), and Bernard L. Feringa (Netherlands).
NobelPrize.org claimed that “the design and synthesis of molecular machines” won the men the award.
Feringa spoke in a phone interview with the Nobel Prize committee, saying, “[The three of us] know the community, we are the scientific family, we have meetings, we cooperate, we encourage each other, we exchange students.”
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
The single recipient of the physiological award was given to Tokyo’s Yoshinori Ohsumi.
The official Nobel website described Ohsumi’s accomplishments as “discoveries of mechanisms for autophagy.”
Yoshinori spoke on the experience, saying he was shocked to be the only laureate.
The Nobel Prize in Literature
The 2016 laureate of the Prize in Literature was handed to singer-songwriter, American Bob Dylan.
The organization commented on the award, writing that he “created new poetic expressions within the great American song tradition.”
Joyce Carol Oates, author of The Accursed spoke on the honor, calling Dylan “an inspired choice,” and telling The Guardian, “His haunting music and lyrics have always seemed, in the deepest sense, literary.”
The Nobel Peace Prize
Colombia’s Juan Manuel Santos won the award for the Peace Prize, arguably the more popular and highly recognized of the certificates.
His accomplishments, according to NobelPrize.org, were “resolute efforts to bring [his] country’s more than 50-year-long civil war to an end.” Santos is the Colombian president who emphasized relief to those affected.
Santos, in an interview with the Nobel organization’s Adam Smith, said, “I receive this with great emotion, and this is something that will forever be important for my country and for the people who have suffered with the war. This is a great, great recognition for my country and with all humbleness I receive it. I am terribly grateful.”
The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel
The 2016 Economic Sciences prize was given to laureates Oliver Hart (United Kingdom) and Bengt Holmström (Finland).
Their work was recognized by NobelPrize.org as “contributions to contract theory.”
Hart gave a heartwarming interview to the organization, saying his first reaction was to “hug [his] wife, wake up [his] younger son […] and […] actually [speak to his] fellow Laureate.”